Risk Assessment

Safety guidance relating to the formulation of risk assessments.  Background, the law, definitions and the process.

The company recognises that workplace hazards expose individuals to the risk of harm. Hazard awareness is, therefore, essential if accidents are to be avoided.  Through training, regular communication and consultation, it endeavours to reduce the risk attaching to these hazards to an acceptable level.  Wherever there is a probability that this cannot be achieved, a written risk assessment will be completed, recorded and communicated. 

From time to time there will be a need for an assessment of the risk attaching to specific work tasks or site/workplace hazards not covered by the generic assessments.  In such cases a risk assessment will be carried out by the manager/supervisor allocating the        task or the person(s) who will carry out the task. The assessment will be recorded and communicated by the manager responsible for the work task or work site.  The manager will ensure that the personnel who will carry out the work task are competent by way of relevant training and/or experience.

It is recommended that signatures are obtained from employees indicating that they have fully understood and agree to comply with the content of the information presented. If signatures are not obtained then some other form of record must be kept that demonstrates that the individual has received the information e.g. via delivery at induction, delivery at safety meetings, given time and

space to read the information, etc.

If an assessment for a task cannot be followed or conditions change such that the assessment is no longer appropriate, work must stop until such time as the task can be reassessed.

Risk assessments specify control measures which must be in place before work can commence.

Those carrying out risk assessment should have attended formal Health and Safety training or should attend an approved company in-house risk assessment course.

Assessment Review

For new assessments and for changes to existing assessments a review date will be required at 12 months. At the 12 month review if no changes are necessary the second and subsequent reviews can be set for a five year period.

Risk assessment should be seen as a continuing process. So, the adequacy of your selected control measures should be subject to continual review and revised if necessary. Similarly if conditions change to the extent that hazards and risks are significantly affected then the risk assessment should also be reviewed.

 

Contents                                                                                                 page

 

Background

 

 

2

The Law

 

 

2

Key Definitions

 

 

3

The risk assessment process

 

 

4

Annex A - The process of risk assessment in brief

 

 

11

Annex B - Prompt-List Of Hazards

 

 

12

Annex C -Blank Risk Assessment Pro-forma

 

 

13

Annex D - Completed Risk Assessment

 

 

14

Annex E - Extended Hazard Checklist

 

15

 The Law

The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MHSW) were introduced under the umbrella of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, to enable the UK to implement the EC directive aimed at encouraging an improvement in the approach of management towards the health and safety of people at work.

The duties imposed by the MHSW in most cases are ‘absolute’, ie not qualified by the terms ‘practicable’ or ‘reasonably practicable’.  There are 30 regulations in-all making up the MHSW Regulations, Regulation 3 - Risk Assessment, being the one that these guidelines are designed to explain. (Accompanying the MHSW is an approved code of practice (L21) available from HSE books which is recommended reading.) The main provisions of Regulation 3 are summarised below.

Risk Assessment Regulation 3

Regulation 3 of MHSW requires employers to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to the health and safety of their employees whilst at work.   The purpose of an assessment under these regulations is to enable the employer to identify the preventative or protective control measures necessary to control the risks highlighted in the risk assessment. An assessment must also include any risks to the health and safety of non-employees.

 A suitable and sufficient assessment is one that:

  • correctly identifies the significant risks that are reasonably foreseeable
  • enables the assessor to decide what action needs to be taken, and what the priorities should be
  • is appropriate for the type of activity
  • will remain valid for a reasonable time
  • reflects what employers may reasonably practicably be expected to know about the risks associated with their undertaking.

The time and effort put into an assessment should be proportional to the degree of risk.

Where an assessment has been carried out as a requirement of some other regulations, for example COSHH, there is no need to repeat the exercise for the purposes of meeting the MHSW Regulations.

An assessment must be reviewed and up dated where necessary.

Where an employer has several similar workplaces with similar activities a ‘generic’ (or model basic) assessment may be appropriate, but these ‘generic’ assessments must be adapted, where necessary, to be relevant to each individual undertaking.

A record of the assessment is required where an employer has five or more employees.  The record must detail: the significant hazards which might pose a serious risk if they were not properly

controlled; the control measures in place and the population exposed to the risks, including any group of people especially at risk.    

What is risk assessment and why do it?

The basic steps

Risk assessment involves three basic steps:

           

                        1)         Identify hazards;

                        2)         Estimate the risk from each hazard - the likelihood and severity of harm

                        3)         Decide if risk is tolerable

 

Why is risk assessment important?

For many years occupational health and safety risk assessments have been carried out usually on an informal basis. Employers are now legally obliged to carry out risk assessments under MHSW, and other more specific regulations. Their main purpose is to determine whether planned or existing safety control measures are adequate. The intention is that hazards are removed or risks controlled before harm can occur.

Some do’s and don’ts

Don’t-   think of risk assessment as a bureaucratic imposition. That will waste time and change nothing.

Do -      look on risk assessment as an aid to providing an action list, which will form the basis for implementing control measures.

Do-       ensure that you have, or select people that have practical knowledge of the activities being assessed.

Do-       involve other people in risk assessment, everyone should contribute to assessments that relate to them.

Don’t    become complacent.  People who are too close to situations may no longer see hazards.  The aim is that everyone tackles risk assessment with a fresh pair of eyes and a questioning approach. 

 

Risk assessment pro-forma

A risk assessment pro-forma has been developed. Blank and completed examples can be found in Annex C and D.  The use of these forms will be referred to throughout these guidelines. 

The pro-forma and completed generic assessments are available on the library drive of the server for ease of cribbing for similar activities.

 

Key Definitions

One aspect of risk assessment, which can cause some confusion, is the proliferation of interpretations of familiar words such as accident, hazard, risk and so on. So, for the purposes of these guidelines the following definitions will apply.

Accident                       An accident is an unwanted, unexpected, unplanned and unanticipated event with negative consequences, which results in harm or loss.

Incident                        An incident is an event, which represents a deviation from the intended sequence of steps designed to enable an objective to be attained. It normally has an unwanted outcome. A “near miss” tends to be described as an incident.

 

Hazard                         A hazard is an article, substance, machine, installation or situation with a potential to cause harm or loss.

 

 

 

Risk                             Risk is the combination of the likelihood and the severity of a specified hazardous event (accident or incident). Risk, then, always has two elements:

 

a)                                             the likelihood that a hazard may occur;

                                                                       

b)                                             the severity of the harm or loss

                                                                       

Harm                            Harm represents physical injury, ill-health, death, property and equipment damage and any form of associated loss.

 

Danger                         Danger is a state or situation which is a product of a hazard and its associated risk    (the difference between danger and risk can be illustrated by the following. Where there are permanently exposed high voltage electrical conductors there is a permanent danger of electrocution; however the risk of electrocution would vary between, say a competent electrician and a young child in close proximity with the conductors).

 

Tolerable Risk              Risk has been reduced to the lowest level that is reasonably practicable. 

 

Example using the definitions

 

Working from a ladder is a hazard with the potential to cause harm both to the person working on the ladder (eg harm caused by falling) and to people below (eg harm caused by being struck by an object dropped from the ladder). The person working from the ladder is in danger and anyone below the ladder is in a danger area.

           

            The risk assessment of working from a ladder will analyze:

           

(a)                    the likelihood of these accidents or incidents occurring, taking into account the condition of the ladder, if it is secured, if the work carried out from  it requires two hands or overreaching, how competent the person on the ladder is, how long the work will take, if the  ladder is near a busy doorway or in public areas, etc

           

(b)                    the severity of the harm; this is related to the height of the work, the surface below the ladder, whether the work is over water or chemicals, if the ladder is near a busy doorway or in public areas, etc.

 

These factors, and any others, will be used to decide on the level of risk and evaluate if the hazard is adequately controlled.

 

 

The risk assessment process

 

 

1                                  Identify Work Activities

 

A necessary preliminary to risk assessment is to draw up a list of work activities, group them in a manageable way and then gather information about them. It is best to integrate assessment for all hazards, associated with a task, and not carry out separate assessments for health hazards, manual handling, machinery hazards and so on. For example, constructing an aluminium tower scaffold has two main hazards, falls from above 2m and manual handling. Only one assessment should be carried out, but would include how to control these two hazards.

 

The size of the job in hand will determine whether a list of work activities needs to be drawn up. A large project, for instance, may have many tasks associated with it, i.e. working at height, pressure testing, welding, use of mobile elevating work platforms, lifting of evaporators, site access, etc. In a case such as this, a list would need to be drawn up. Many of the tasks will have been assessed previously.  Generic assessments will be found on the server.  If appropriate these can be used un-altered, or changed to take account of any site-specific requirements.

 

 

 

 

 

There may be some tasks on your list that have no previous assessment, therefore, it will be necessary for you to carry out the assessment yourself.

 

Having decided that there is a task that requires assessment, you may need to gather information. Some areas to think about include the following:

 

            tasks being carried out: their duration and frequency;

 

            location where the work is carried out;

 

            who will be carrying out the task;

 

            others who may be affected by the work (e.g. visitors, contractors, the public);

 

            training that personnel have received about the tasks;

 

            any written systems of work ( e.g. technical bulletins or standard specifications);

 

            is there a permit to work system that must be followed or site specific rules (customers safety rules);

 

            plant, machinery powered hand tools that may be required including any operating instruction;

 

            size, shape surface character and weight of materials that may be handled;

 

            distances and height that materials have to be moved by hand and over what surface (working on a cold store ceiling);

 

            services used (e.g. compressed air, electricity);

 

            substances used during the task (e.g. paints, gases) and their physical form (fume, gas, vapour, liquid dust/powder, solid);

 

            content of and recommendations of COSHH and material safety data sheets (MSDS) relating to substances used or encountered;

 

            requirements of relevant acts, regulations and standards relevant to the work being carried out, the plant and machinery used, and the substances used or encountered (e.g. BS EN 378 - 2000, Refrigeration Institute Codes, Electricity at Work Regulations, Pressure Systems Regulations etc);

 

            Control measures that are already in place or you are positive will be in place when the work is due to take place.

 

 

2          Identify Hazards

 

Once the tasks are known and relevant information has been gathered, hazards associated with the tasks need to be identified. Three questions help with hazard identification:

 

  1. is there a source of harm?         

 

  1. who ( or what ) could be harmed?           

 

  1. how could harm occur?

 

The approved code of practice (ACOP) to the Management of Health and safety at Work Regulations says that a suitable and sufficient risk assessment should be made. “Suitable and sufficient” is not defined in the Regulations. In practice it means the risk assessment should identify the risks arising from or in connection with work. The level of detail in a risk assessment should be proportionate to the risk. Once the risks are assessed and taken into account, insignificant risks can usually be ignored as can those risks arising from routine activities associated with life in general, unless the

 

 

work activity compounds or significantly alters those risks. It is difficult to see how the risk associated with a hazard can be considered insignificant unless it has been identified and properly analysed.  Therefore, it is good practice to identify all hazards, but if you consider the hazard to possess little potential to cause harm, then give it a low risk rating. (See 4 Determine Risk)

 

A prompt-list of hazards is recommended, such as the one in annex B an extended checklist of hazards can be found in annex E 

 

 

3          Identify Risk Control Measures

 

During your consideration of the identified hazards, you must note down the existing or planned control measures that you think are necessary to control that risk, on the Star pro-forma, An example of some control measures can be found on the example risk assessment in Annex D.

 

For the planned control measures, it may be necessary to prepare an action plan for their implementation well in advance of any work being started.

 

Selection of Safety Controls

 

The selection of Safety control measures is largely up to the individuals carrying out the assessment. This is why assessments should only be carried out by people with practical experience of the work activity (If in doubt ask for help. Assessments carried out by a small team, are usually the most workable). The control measures decided upon, must then be implemented and discussed with the people who will be carrying out the work it is useful to obtain their signatures once they agree to implement the controls and fully understand the assessment requirements.

 

In deciding which preventative and protective measures to take in order to control the hazard, you should apply the following principles of prevention:

 

Measures that protect everyone;

 

  1. Eliminate- if possible, eliminate the hazards altogether, e.g. do the work in a different way, taking care not to introduce new hazards;

 

  1. evaluate risks that cannot be avoided by carrying out a risk assessment;

 

  1. Reduce- if elimination is not possible, replace the dangerous by the non-dangerous or the less dangerous e.g. by using a low voltage electrical tool;

 

  1. Isolate- put a barrier between the hazard and the exposed persons, ideally a physical barrier, e.g. machine guard or acoustic housing, but space or time can help. where possible adapt work to the individual, e.g. to take account of individual mental and physical capabilities;

 

  1. Control- these are ideally engineering controls e.g. interlocks, and extraction systems.  Safe systems of work in the form of procedures and codes of practice backed up by administrative systems, can be required.

 

Measures that only protect the individual;

 

  1.  Personal protective equipment- this option must only be used when the risk is not adequately controlled by other measures. It is useful as a short-term measure, only used until better solutions are identified and implemented. PPE should be considered as a last resort;

 

Common measures;

 

  1. Educate the workforce- train and inform;

 

 

  1. Emergency arrangements- consideration should be given to the development of emergency and evacuation plans, and provision of emergency equipment relevant to particular hazards e.g. drench shower for ammonia splashes.

 

 

Additional notes:

 

  1. take advantage of technical progress, which often offers opportunities for improving working methods and making them safer;

 

  1. give priority to those measures which protect the whole workplace and everyone who works there, and so give the greatest benefit (i.e. give collective measures priority over individual measures – provide edge protection rather than provide safety harnesses)

 

  1. combat risks at source, rather than taking palliative measures. So, if the steps are slippery, treating or replacing them is better than displaying a warning sign;

 

 

4        Determine Risk                                                                                                                         

 

As mentioned earlier, risk always has two elements, likelihood and severity. The risk from a hazard should be determined by subjective estimations of the potential severity of harm and the likelihood that harm will occur. You should make your initial estimations based on the existing controls being in place and any additional estimations based on the assumption that the planned controls will be in place.

 

Severity of harm

 

When trying to determine the potential severity of harm, the following should be considered:

 

  • parts of the body likely to be affected (e.g. a crush injury to ones arm is less likely to

be as debilitating as a crush injury to the head)

 

  • the following descriptions of the nature of  harm, ranging from low to high –

 

 

 

 

 

Low

First aid injury e.g superficial injuries, minor cuts and bruises, eye irritation from dust, Nuisance and irritation (e.g. headaches), ill health leading to temporary discomfort;

Medium

Major injury or over 3 days off work e.g lacerations, burns, concussion, serious sprains, Minor fractures, deafness, dermatitis, asthma, work related upper limb disorders, ill-health leading to permanent minor disability.

High

Permanent incapacity or death e.g, amputations, major fractures, poisonings, multiple injuries, fatal injuries, occupational cancer, other severely life shortening diseases, acute fatal diseases.

             

 

Table 1: Severity rating

SEVERITY RATING

Low (1)

= First aid injury

Medium (2)

= Major injury or over 3 days off work

High (3)

= Permanent incapacity or death

 

 

Likelihood of harm

When trying to determine the likelihood of harm the adequacy of existing and planned control measures needs to be considered. The following issues should be considered in addition to the work activity information already gathered:

 

  • number of personnel exposed;
  • frequency and duration of exposure to the hazard:
  • failure of services e.g. electricity and water;
  • failure of plant and machinery components and safety devices;
  • exposure to the elements;
  • protection afforded by personal protective equipment and usage rate of such equipment;
  • unsafe acts (unintended errors or intentional violations of procedures) by persons, for example, who:
  1. may not know what the hazards are;
  2. may not have the knowledge, physical capacity or skills to do the work;
  3. underestimate risks to which they are exposed (particularly the young);

 

Frequency of harm, ranging from low to high:

 

Low

Unlikely, i.e. harm will seldom occur

Medium

Possible, i.e Harm will occur more frequently

High

Likely, i.e harm is certain or near certain

 

 

Table 2: Likelihood rating

LIKELIHOOD RATING

Low (1)

= Unlikely

Medium (2)

= Possible

High (3)

= Likely

 

 

These subjective estimations of severity and likelihood should take into account all the people exposed to a hazard. Therefore, any given hazard is more serious if it affects a greater number of people.  But remember some very large risks may be associated with an occasional task carried out by just one person.

 

 

 

5          Decide if Risk is Tolerable

 

 

The likelihood and severity descriptions above have been given scores ranging from 1 to 3 as follows:

 

Likelihood:-      Low = 1,Medium = 2,High =3.

 

Severity:-        Low = 1, Medium = 2,High = 3;

 

A risk rating for a given hazard is then arrived at by multiplying the appropriate likelihood and severity scores of the hazard together.                      

 

Likelihood x Severity = Risk Rating

 

Table 3: Risk Level Estimator

RISK RATING (Likelihood X Severity)

1 = Trivial Risk

6 = Substantial Risk

2 = Tolerable Risk

9 = Intolerable Risk

3 or 4 = Moderate Risk

 

 

 

Having arrived at a risk rating for each of the hazards identified, it is time to decide whether the risks associated with the work activity are acceptable.  In order to do this we can refer to Table 4 for basic guidance. The table indicates that control effort and urgency should be proportional to the risk.

 

 

Table 4: Risk Based Control Plan 

Risk Level

Action and Timescale

Trivial

No action is required and no documentary records need to be kept.

Tolerable

No additional controls are required. Consideration may be given to a more cost-effective solution or improvement that imposes no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to ensure that the controls are maintained.

Moderate

Thought should be given to reduce risk, but the costs of prevention should be carefully measured and limited. Risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined time period.

 

Where moderate risk is associated with extremely harmful consequences, further assessment may be required to establish more precisely the likelihood of harm as a basis for determining the need for improved control measures.

Substantial

Work should not be started until the risk is reduced. Considerable resources may have to be allocated to reduce the risk. Where the risk involves work in progress, urgent action should be taken.

Intolerable

Work should not be started or continued until the risk is reduced. If this is not possible even with unlimited resources, work has to remain prohibited.

 

 

Example:

 

 

Referring to the completed risk assessment in annex D

 

The task is to move steel pipe across the insulated ceiling of a cold store. On site there is just one engineer.

 

Three main hazards have been identified (there may be more!)

 

Taking the hazard ‘Manual handling of steel pipe, weight 100 kg’ as our example. The identified existing controls in place are one man trained in manual handling supplied with leather handling gloves to protect hands and steel toecap boots to protect toes.

 

Assessing the risk with these controls in place I have given the hazard “strain or sprain due to manual handling of steel pipe, weight 100 kg’ a likelihood score of 3 (likely as one man could not safely lift 100kg) and a severity score of 2 (Major injury or over 3 days off work because if he tried to lift he could pull a muscle or tear a tendon), multiplied the two together which equals 6 and then entered this in the risk rating (RR) column.

 

With a RR of 6 referring to table 3 above a RR of 6 equates to a substantial risk, therefore, from table 4 “Work should not be started until the risk is reduced. Considerable resources may have to be allocated to reduce the risk. Where the risk involves work in progress, urgent action should be taken”. Therefore, unless further controls are put in place this work must not start.

 

 

 

 

 

 

At this point we can consider the principles of prevention and start by considering whether we need to move the pipe by hand at all (i.e. eliminate the hazard), could a crane do the work for example? In this case we have assumed that there’s no alternative but to do the job by hand, so we need to decide on appropriate controls to do this and enter these into the column  “Further work required to give acceptable level of risk”. A team lift is decided upon, however, all in the team must have had manual handling training, and all must wear hand and foot protection. Using 4 people in this way will limit the load to just 25 kg each.

 

Assessing the risk with these additional controls in place I have given the hazard “strain or sprain due to manual handling of steel pipe, weight 100 kg’ a likelihood score of 1 (Unlikely, i.e. harm will seldom occur as four men working as a team could safely lift 100kg) but the severity score has remained at 2 (Major injury or over 3 days off work because if the team does not work as one, then someone could still pull a muscle or tear a tendon), multiplied the two together which equals 2 and then entered this in the risk rating (RR) column.

 

Referring to tables 3 and 4 a RR of 2 equates to a tolerable risk, therefore, no additional controls are required. Consideration may be given to a more cost-effective solution or improvement that imposes no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to ensure that the controls are maintained”. Therefore, with these further controls in place the hazard is adequately controlled.

 

An action is placed on the project manager to resource the extra men.

 

6          Review Adequacy of Risk Controls

 

 

The adequacy of the planned control measures should be reviewed before implementation, a number of questions should be asked?

 

  • will the planned control measures lead to tolerable risk levels?

 

  • are any new hazards created by the new or planned control measures?

 

  • has the most cost-effective solution been chosen?

 

  • what do people affected think about the need for, and practicality of, the planned measures?

 

  • will the planned controls be used in practice, and not ignored in the face of, for example, pressures to get the job done?

 

 

Validate the assessment

 

Having completed the assessment and completed the pro-forma, all that remains to be done is for you to state whether the control measures are adequate to control the risk or not. This is done by simply signing the pro-forma on the “completed by” line.

 

Assessment Review

 

Risk assessment should be seen as a continuing process. So, the adequacy of your selected control measures should be subject to continual review and revised if necessary. Similarly if conditions change to the extent that hazards and risks are significantly affected then the risk assessment should also be reviewed. And in any case a review date should be set for an initial period of twelve months

 

Annex A - The process of risk assessment in brief

 

The following criteria are necessary for an effective risk assessment:

 

1)     Identify Work Activities:                      

 

Prepare a list of work activities covering premises, plant, people, and procedures, and gather information about them.

 

2)     Identify Hazards:

 

Identify all significant hazards relating to each work activity. Consider who might be harmed and how.

 

3)     Identify Risk Controls:

 

Note down any existing control measures.

 

4)     Determine Risk:

 

Considering the effectiveness of the controls in (3) and the consequences of their failure, make a subjective estimate of risk associated with each hazard.

 

5)     Decide if Risk is Tolerable:

 

Judge whether existing controls are sufficient to keep the hazard under control. If they are go to (9). However, if the hazard is not adequately controlled then go to (6)

 

6)     Identify Additional Risk Controls:

 

Note down additional control measures.

 

7)     Determine Risk:

 

Again, considering the effectiveness of the controls in (3) and (6), and the consequences of their failure, make a subjective estimate of risk associated with each hazard.

 

8)     Decide if Risk is Tolerable:

 

Judge whether existing plus additional planned controls are sufficient to keep the hazard under control if they are go to (9). However, if the hazard is not adequately controlled then work must not start.

 

9)     Implement Controls and Review Adequacy of Risk Controls:

 

The risk assessment is complete, implement control measures, ensure those at risk are made aware of the requirements of the assessment. The adequacy of the risk control measures should be reviewed periodically.

 

 

Note.    The word ‘tolerable’ here means that risk has been reduced to the lowest level that is reasonably practicable. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex B - Prompt-List Of Hazards

 

 

Physical

 

 

 

  • Falls from above 2m
  • Falls less than 2m
  • Slips, trips, falls on same level
  • Moving Plant
  • Moving Machine Parts
  • Moving Materials
  • Access equipment
  • Inadequate guard rails

 

 

Electrical

 

 

 

  • Overhead cables
  • Shock
  • Use of Power tools
  • Burns
  • Wet floors

 

 

 

Hot Work

 

 

 

  • Fire
  • Burns
  • Fumes

 

 

 

Radiation

 

 

 

  • Ionising- (X-Ray and Gama ray)
  • Non-Ionising-(Ultraviolet)

 

 

Environment

 

 

 

  • Weather conditions
  • Extreme heat
  • Extreme cold
  • Lighting
  • Ventilation

 

 

 

Exposure to:-

 

 

 

  • Harmful substances
  • Dust
  • Fume
  • Vibration
  • Noise
  • R.S.I
  • Micro-organisms - legionnelosis
  • Asphyxiants
  • Vermin - rats, pigions, etc
  • Suspended loads
  • Pressurised systems
  • Pressurised Cylinders

 

 

Manual Handling:-

 

 

 

  • Pushing/pulling
  • Lifting
  • Carrying
  • Stooping or Twisting

 

 

Miscellaneous

 

 

 

  • Confined space
  • Restricted space
  • Restricted access
  • Violence to staff

 

 

This is not an exhaustive list of hazards but probably does cover most of the hazards associated.

 

Annex C - Blank Risk Assessment

 

 

Risk Assessment No…………………………..

Page 1 of 1

 

 

Department:…………………………………………………

 

 

Process/work activity……………………………………..

 

Date:………………………………………………

 

Review Date:…………………………………………

 

Completed by:…………………………………………

Hazard Description

Who could be harmed?

(Operator/Other

Operators/Visitors

Present controls

Risk Rating

with current

controls

Further work required to

give acceptable level of risk/Other Assessments

Required

Risk Rating with additional controls

Action

Allocation/ Completion

Date

L

S

RR

L

S

RR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIKELIHOOD RATING

 

SEVERITY RATING

 

RISK RATING (Likelihood X Severity)

Low (1)

= Unlikely

 

Low (1)

= First aid injury

 

1 = Trivial Risk

6 = Substantial Risk

Medium (2)

= Possible

 

Medium (2)

= Major injury or over 3 days off work

 

2 = Tolerable Risk

9 = Intolerable Risk

High (3)

= Likely

 

High (3)

= Permanent incapacity or death

 

3 or 4 = Moderate Risk

 

 

Annex D -  Completed Risk Assessment

 

Risk Assessment No…………………………..

A Page 1of 1

 

 

Department:  ACME Cold storage

                      Somewhere

                      S35 77QZ

Process/work activity…Man handle 6m lengths of 6 inch diameter steel pipe across the insulated ceiling of the cold store…………………………………..

 

Date:……12 /08/2004…………………………………...

 

Review Date:……12/08/2005………………………

 

Completed by:…C Haslam……………………………..

Hazard Description

Who could be harmed?

(Operator/Other

Operators/Visitors

Present controls

Risk Rating

with current

controls

Further work required to

give acceptable level of risk/Other Assessments

Required

Risk Rating with additional controls

Action

Allocation/ Completion

Date

L

S

RR

L

S

RR

 

Strain or sprain injury from manual handling of steel pipe, weight 100 kg

 

 

 

Star engineer/s

 

One man trained in manual handling.

Leather handling gloves to protect hands. Steel cap boots.

 

3

 

2

 

6

 

Team lift using 4 engineers all trained in manual handling to limit load to 25 Kg each.

 

1

 

2

 

2

 

Project manager to arrange for extra men

Fall greater than 2m following the collapse of the insulated ceiling due to panel overloading

Star engineers

 

Panel condition good, assume one man and toolbox per panel loading.

 

 

2

 

3

 

6

Use “youngman” boards spread from top hat to top hat to spread the load

 

1

 

3

 

3

Project manager to order boards.

Site engineer to ensure boards in place

Crush injuries from ceiling panels falling onto persons below as result of panel collapse

ACME staff

Panel condition good

Use “youngman” boards spread from top hat to top hat to spread the load

 

1

 

3

 

3

ACME staff could be removed from the area.

 

1

 

1

 

1

Site engineer to liaise with client to advise of risk

LIKELIHOOD RATING

 

SEVERITY RATING

 

RISK RATING (Likelihood X Severity)

Low (1)

= Unlikely

 

Low (1)

= First aid injury

 

1 = Trivial Risk

6 = Substantial Risk

Medium (2)

= Possible

 

Medium (2)

= Major injury or over 3 days off work

 

2 = Tolerable Risk

9 = Intolerable Risk

High (3)

= Likely

 

High (3)

= Permanent incapacity or death

 

3 or 4 = Moderate Risk

 

 

 

 

Annex E - Extended Hazard Checklist

 

 

Hazards associated with plant and equipment (including non-powered plant and hand tools)

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Mechanical

Trapping (crushing, drawing in and shearing injuries)

Two moving parts or one moving part and a fixed surface

Conveyor belt and drive

Vee belt and pulley

Power press

'In-running nips"

Mangle

Guillotine

Scissors

Stapler

Using hammer

Impact (includes puncture)

Something that may strike or stab someone or can be struck against

Moving vehicle

Robot arm

Sewing machine

Drill

Hypodermic needle

Pendulum

Crane hook

Contact (Cutting, friction or abrasion)

Something sharp or with a rough surface

Knife, chisel, saw, etc.

Blender blade

Circular saw blade

Sanding belt

Abrasive wheel

Hover mower blade

Entanglement (rotating parts)

Drill chuck and bit

Power take off shaft

Pipe threading machine

Abrasive wheel

Ejection (of work piece or part of tool)

Cartridge tool

Using hammer and chisel

Abrasive wheel

Electrical

Shock/burn/fire/explosion

 

 

 

ignition sources

Electricity above 240v

Electricity -240v

Electricity- 110 v CTE

Extra low volt electricity

Static

Batteries

Pressure

 

Release of energy (Explosion/injection/implosion)

 

Compressed air

Compressed gas

Steam boiler

Vacuum

Hydraulic system

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Stored energy

Flying/Falling materials

Springs under tension

Springs under compression

Hoist platform/lift cage

Conveyor tension weight

Raised tipper lorry body

Counterweight

Load carried by crane

Thermal

Burns/fires/scalds/frostbite

Hot surface

Using blow lamp

Welding flame/are

Refrigerant

Steam

Ionising radiation

Bums, cancer

X Rays

Gama Radiation

Neutrons

Non ionising radiation

Burns

Micro wave

Radio frequency

Laser

Ultra violet

Infra red

Noise

Hearing loss, tinnitus, etc.

Noise > 85 dB(A)

Vibration

 

Vibration white finger, whole body effects

Pneumatic drill

Operation of plant

Stability

Crushing

Inadequate crane base

Fork lift truck on slope

Machine not bolted down

Mobile Scaffold too high

Scaffold not tied

Overload/

defective due to mechanical failure

Crushing

Crane overload

Chain sling

Eye bolt overload

Scaffold overload

Hopper overfill

 

Hazards associated with the working environment

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Light (NB: Also increases risk of contact with other hazards)

Eye strain, arc eye and cataracts

Glare

Poor lighting

Stroboscopic effect

Arc welding

Molten metal

Temperature

Heat stress, hypothermia

Work in furnace

Cold room

Heat stress, sunburn, melanoma, hypothermia, etc.

Outdoor work

Hot weather

Cold weather

Wind chill factor

Work in rain, snow, etc.

Confined spaces

Asphyxiation, explosion, poisoning, etc

Work in tank

Chimney

Pit

Basement

Unventilated room

Vessel

Silo

Ventilation

"Sick Building Syndrome", nausea, tiredness, etc.

Fumes

Odours

Tobacco smoke

Hazards associated with methods of work

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Manual handling

Back injury, hernia, etc.

Lifting

Lowering

Carrying

Pushing

Pulling

Hot/ Cold loads

Rough loads

Live loads - animal/person

Repetitive movements

Work related upper limb disorders

Keyboard work

Using screwdriver

Using hammer and chisel

Bricklaying

Plucking chickens

Production line tasks

Posture

Work related upper limb disorders, stress, etc.

Seated work

Work above head height

Work at floor level

 

 

Hazards associated with materials and substances

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

FIRE/

EXPLOSION Combustion

 

 

 

Bums

 

 

Timber stack

Insulation

Paper store

Grease

Magnesium

Straw

Plastic foam

Increased Combustion

Burns

Oxygen enrichment

Flammable substance (inc. Highly and Extremely Flammable) See also explosive below

Burns

Petrol

Propane gas

Methane

Carbon Monoxide

Methanol

Paraffin

Acetone

Toluene

Oxidising substance

Burns

 

Organic peroxide

Potassium permanganate

Nitric acid

Explosive material

Fireworks

Proprietary explosives

Detonators

Some oxidising agents

Highly flammable gas in confined space

Dust explosions

Burns

Coal dust

Wood dust

Aluminium powder

Flour

Coffee

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

HEALTH HAZARDS Corrosive/

Irritating materials

 

 

Skin effects

 

 

Sulphuric acid

Caustic soda

Man made mineral fibre

Particles

Lung effects

Asbestos fibres

Silica dust

Dust mite faeces

Pigeon droppings

Coal dust

Grain dust

Wood dust

Fumes

Acute and chronic effects on health (Local and systemic effects)

Lead fume

Rubber fume

Asphalt fumes

Vapours

Acute and chronic effects on health

Acetone

1.1,1 -Trichloroethane

Dichloromethane

Benzene

isocyanates

 

 

Hazards associated with the place of work

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Pedestrian Access

Tripping, slipping

Damaged floors

Trailing cables

Oil spills

Water on floors

Debris

Wet grass

Sloping surface

Uneven steps

Changes in floor level

Work at heights

Falls

Fragile roof

Edge of roof

Edge of mezzanine floor

Work on ladder

Erecting scaffold

Hole in floor

Obstructions

Striking against

Low headroom

Sharp projections

Stacking/Storing

Falling materials

High stacks

Insecure stacks

Inadequate racking

Stacking at heights

Work over/near liquids, dusts, grain, etc.

Fall into substances, drowning, poisoning, suffocation, etc.

Grain silo

Tank

Reservoir

Sump

Work over river

Work near canal

Emergencies

Trapping in fire

Locked exits

Obstructed egresses

Long exit route

 

 

 

 

Hazards associated with work organisation

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Contractors

Injuries and ill health to employees by contractors work

Work above employees    

Use of harmful substances                     Contractors' welding

injuries and ill health to contractors' employees by work in premises

Process fumes     

Services (e.g. underground electricity cables)            

Stored hazardous materials

Organisation of work

Injuries to employees

Monotonous work

Stress

Too much work

Lack of control of job

Work too demanding

Work in public areas

Injuries and ill health of public

Trailing cables

Traffic/plant movement

Obstruction to blind person

Obstruction to prams, etc

Work above public

 

 

 

Other types of hazard

 

 

CATEGORY

TYPE OF HARM

EXAMPLES OF HAZARD

Attack by animals

Bite, sting, crushing, etc.

Bees

Dog

Bull

Fleas

Snake

Attack by people

Injury, illness, post trauma stress disorder

Criminal attack

Angry customer

Angry student

Drunken person

Drug abuser

Mentally ill person

Natural hazards

Various injuries, illnesses

Lightning

Flash flood

 

Last modified: Thursday, 4 July 2013, 9:57 AM